There are different type of operating system. Real-time, Multi-user and Single-user, Multi-tasking and Single-tasking, Distributed and Embedded operating system.
An operating system is a software component of a computer system that is responsible for the management of various activities of the computer and the sharing of computer resources. The operating system is a vital component of the system software in a computer system. Application programs require an operating system to function. It hosts several applications that run on a computer and handles the operations of computer hardware. Users and application programs access the services offered by the operating systems, by means of system calls and application programming interfaces. Users interact with a computer operating system through Command Line Interfaces (CLIs) or Graphical User Interfaces known as GUIs. In short, an operating system enables user interaction with computer systems by acting as an interface between users or application programs and the computer hardware. Here is an overview of the different types of operating systems.
Time-sharing operating systems schedule tasks for efficient use of the system and may also include accounting for cost allocation of processor time, mass storage, printing, and other resources.
For hardware functions such as input and output and memory allocation, the operating system acts as an intermediary between programs and the computer hardware, although the application code is usually executed directly by the hardware and will frequently make a system call to an OS function or be interrupted by it. Operating systems can be found on almost any device that contains a computer—from cellular phones and video game consoles to supercomputers and web servers.
Examples of popular modern operating systems include Android, BSD, iOS, GNU/Linux, Mac OS X, Microsoft Windows, Windows Phone, and IBM z/OS. All these, except Windows and z/OS, share roots in UNIX.
Operating System Types
A real-time operating system is a multitasking operating system that aims at executing real-time applications. Real-time operating systems often use specialized scheduling algorithms so that they can achieve a deterministic nature of behavior. The main objective of real-time operating systems is their quick and predictable response to events. They have an event-driven or time-sharing design and often aspects of both. An event-driven system switches between tasks based on their priorities or external events while time-sharing operating systems switch tasks based on clock interrupts.
A multi-user operating system allows multiple users to access a computer system concurrently. Time-sharing system can be classified as multi-user systems as they enable a multiple user access to a computer through the sharing of time. Single-user operating systems, as opposed to a multi-user operating system, are usable by a single user at a time. Being able to use multiple accounts on a Windows operating system does not make it a multi-user system. Rather, only the network administrator is the real user. But for a UNIX-like operating system, it is possible for two users to login at a time and this capability of the OS makes it a multi-user operating system.
- Multi-tasking vs. Single-tasking
When only a single program is allowed to run at a time, the system is grouped under a single-tasking system. However, when the operating system allows the execution of multiple tasks at one time, it is classified as a multi-tasking operating system. Multi-tasking can be of two types: pre-emptive or co-operative. In pre-emptive multitasking, the operating system slices the CPU time and dedicates one slot to each of the programs. Unix-like operating systems such as Solaris and Linux support pre-emptive multitasking, as does AmigaOS. Cooperative multitasking is achieved by relying on each process to give time to the other processes in a defined manner. 16-bit versions of Microsoft Windows used cooperative multi-tasking. 32-bit versions, both Windows NT and Win9x, used pre-emptive multi-tasking. Mac OS prior to OS X used to support cooperative multitasking.
A distributed operating system manages a group of independent computers and makes them appear to be a single computer. The development of networked computers that could be linked and communicate with each other gave rise to distributed computing. Distributed computations are carried out on more than one machine. When computers in a group work in cooperation, they make a distributed system.
Embedded operating systems are designed to be used in embedded computer systems. They are designed to operate on small machines like PDAs with less autonomy. They are able to operate with a limited number of resources. They are very compact and extremely efficient by design. Windows CE and Minix 3 are some examples of embedded operating systems.
Operating System Listing
|Operating system||Date first released||Platform||Developer|
|AIX and AIXL||Unix and Linux history.||Various||IBM|
|AmigaOS||Currently no AmigaOS history.||Amiga||Commodore|
|BSD||Unix and Linux history.||Various||BSD|
|Caldera Linux||Unix and Linux history.||Various||SCO|
|Corel Linux||Unix and Linux history.||Various||Corel|
|Debian Linux||Unix and Linux history.||Various||GNU|
|DUnix||Unix and Linux history.||Various||Digital|
|DYNIX/ptx||Unix and Linux history.||Various||IBM|
|HP-UX||Unix and Linux history.||Various||Hewlett Packard|
|IRIX||Unix and Linux history.||Various||SGI|
|Kondara Linux||Unix and Linux history.||Various||Kondara|
|Linux||Unix and Linux history.||Various||Linus Torvalds|
|MAC OS 8||Apple operating system history.||Apple Macintosh||Apple|
|MAC OS 9||Apple operating system history.||Apple Macintosh||Apple|
|MAC OS 10||Apple operating system history.||Apple Macintosh||Apple|
|MAC OS X||Apple operating system history.||Apple Macintosh||Apple|
|Mandrake Linux||Unix and Linux history.||Various||Mandrake|
|MINIX||Unix and Linux history.||Various||MINIX|
|MS-DOS 1.x||MS-DOS history.||IBM||Microsoft|
|MS-DOS 2.x||MS-DOS history.||IBM||Microsoft|
|MS-DOS 3.x||MS-DOS history.||IBM||Microsoft|
|MS-DOS 4.x||MS-DOS history.||IBM||Microsoft|
|MS-DOS 5.x||MS-DOS history.||IBM||Microsoft|
|MS-DOS 6.x||MS-DOS history.||IBM||Microsoft|
|NEXTSTEP||Apple operating system history.||Various||Apple|
|OSF/1||Unix and Linux history.||Various||OSF|
|QNX||Unix and Linux history.||Various||QNX|
|Red Hat Linux||Unix and Linux history.||Various||Red Hat|
|SCO||Unix and Linux history.||Various||SCO|
|Slackware Linux||Unix and Linux history.||Various||Slackware|
|Sun Solaris||Unix and Linux history.||Various||Sun|
|SuSE Linux||Unix and Linux history.||Various||SuSE|
|System 1||Apple operating system history.||Apple Macintosh||Apple|
|System 2||Apple operating system history.||Apple Macintosh||Apple|
|System 3||Apple operating system history.||Apple Macintosh||Apple|
|System 4||Apple operating system history.||Apple Macintosh||Apple|
|System 6||Apple operating system history.||Apple Macintosh||Apple|
|System 7||Apple operating system history.||Apple Macintosh||Apple|
|System V||Unix and Linux history.||Various||System V|
|Tru64 Unix||Unix and Linux history.||Various||Digital|
|Turbolinux||Unix and Linux history.||Various||Turbolinux|
|Ultrix||Unix and Linux history.||Various||Ultrix|
|Unisys||Unix and Linux history.||Various||Unisys|
|Unix||Unix and Linux history.||Various||Bell labs|
|UnixWare||Unix and Linux history.||Various||UnixWare|
|VectorLinux||Unix and Linux history.||Various||VectorLinux|
|Windows 2000||Microsoft Windows history.||IBM||Microsoft|
|Windows 2003||Microsoft Windows history.||IBM||Microsoft|
|Windows 3.X||Microsoft Windows history.||IBM||Microsoft|
|Windows 7||Microsoft Windows history.||IBM||Microsoft|
|Windows 95||Microsoft Windows history.||IBM||Microsoft|
|Windows 98||Microsoft Windows history.||IBM||Microsoft|
|Windows CE||Microsoft Windows history.||PDA||Microsoft|
|Windows ME||Microsoft Windows history.||IBM||Microsoft|
|Windows NT||Microsoft Windows history.||IBM||Microsoft|
|Windows Vista||Microsoft Windows history.||IBM||Microsoft|
|Windows XP||Microsoft Windows history.||IBM||Microsoft|
|Xenix||Unix and Linux history.||Various||Microsoft|