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How Many Types Of Operating System

There are different type of operating system. Real-time, Multi-user and Single-user, Multi-tasking and Single-tasking, Distributed and Embedded operating system.

An operating system is a software component of a computer system that is responsible for the management of various activities of the computer and the sharing of computer resources. The operating system is a vital component of the system software in a computer system. Application programs require an operating system to function. It hosts several applications that run on a computer and handles the operations of computer hardware. Users and application programs access the services offered by the operating systems, by means of system calls and application programming interfaces. Users interact with a computer operating system through Command Line Interfaces (CLIs) or Graphical User Interfaces known as GUIs. In short, an operating system enables user interaction with computer systems by acting as an interface between users or application programs and the computer hardware. Here is an overview of the different types of operating systems.

Time-sharing operating systems schedule tasks for efficient use of the system and may also include accounting for cost allocation of processor time, mass storage, printing, and other resources.

For hardware functions such as input and output and memory allocation, the operating system acts as an intermediary between programs and the computer hardware, although the application code is usually executed directly by the hardware and will frequently make a system call to an OS function or be interrupted by it. Operating systems can be found on almost any device that contains a computer—from cellular phones and video game consoles to supercomputers and web servers.

Examples of popular modern operating systems include Android, BSD, iOS, GNU/Linux, Mac OS X, Microsoft Windows, Windows Phone, and IBM z/OS. All these, except Windows and z/OS, share roots in UNIX.

Operating System Types

Real-time

A real-time operating system is a multitasking operating system that aims at executing real-time applications. Real-time operating systems often use specialized scheduling algorithms so that they can achieve a deterministic nature of behavior. The main objective of real-time operating systems is their quick and predictable response to events. They have an event-driven or time-sharing design and often aspects of both. An event-driven system switches between tasks based on their priorities or external events while time-sharing operating systems switch tasks based on clock interrupts.

Multi-user

A multi-user operating system allows multiple users to access a computer system concurrently. Time-sharing system can be classified as multi-user systems as they enable a multiple user access to a computer through the sharing of time. Single-user operating systems, as opposed to a multi-user operating system, are usable by a single user at a time. Being able to use multiple accounts on a Windows operating system does not make it a multi-user system. Rather, only the network administrator is the real user. But for a UNIX-like operating system, it is possible for two users to login at a time and this capability of the OS makes it a multi-user operating system.

Multi-tasking vs. Single-tasking

When only a single program is allowed to run at a time, the system is grouped under a single-tasking system. However, when the operating system allows the execution of multiple tasks at one time, it is classified as a multi-tasking operating system. Multi-tasking can be of two types: pre-emptive or co-operative. In pre-emptive multitasking, the operating system slices the CPU time and dedicates one slot to each of the programs. Unix-like operating systems such as Solaris and Linux support pre-emptive multitasking, as does AmigaOS. Cooperative multitasking is achieved by relying on each process to give time to the other processes in a defined manner. 16-bit versions of Microsoft Windows used cooperative multi-tasking. 32-bit versions, both Windows NT and Win9x, used pre-emptive multi-tasking. Mac OS prior to OS X used to support cooperative multitasking.

Distributed

A distributed operating system manages a group of independent computers and makes them appear to be a single computer. The development of networked computers that could be linked and communicate with each other gave rise to distributed computing. Distributed computations are carried out on more than one machine. When computers in a group work in cooperation, they make a distributed system.

Embedded

Embedded operating systems are designed to be used in embedded computer systems. They are designed to operate on small machines like PDAs with less autonomy. They are able to operate with a limited number of resources. They are very compact and extremely efficient by design. Windows CE and Minix 3 are some examples of embedded operating systems.

Operating System Listing

Operating system Date first released Platform Developer
AIX and AIXL Unix and Linux history. Various IBM
AmigaOS Currently no AmigaOS history. Amiga Commodore
BSD Unix and Linux history. Various BSD
Caldera Linux Unix and Linux history. Various SCO
Corel Linux Unix and Linux history. Various Corel
Debian Linux Unix and Linux history. Various GNU
DUnix Unix and Linux history. Various Digital
DYNIX/ptx Unix and Linux history. Various IBM
HP-UX Unix and Linux history. Various Hewlett Packard
IRIX Unix and Linux history. Various SGI
Kondara Linux Unix and Linux history. Various Kondara
Linux Unix and Linux history. Various Linus Torvalds
MAC OS 8 Apple operating system history. Apple Macintosh Apple
MAC OS 9 Apple operating system history. Apple Macintosh Apple
MAC OS 10 Apple operating system history. Apple Macintosh Apple
MAC OS X Apple operating system history. Apple Macintosh Apple
Mandrake Linux Unix and Linux history. Various Mandrake
MINIX Unix and Linux history. Various MINIX
MS-DOS 1.x MS-DOS history. IBM Microsoft
MS-DOS 2.x MS-DOS history. IBM Microsoft
MS-DOS 3.x MS-DOS history. IBM Microsoft
MS-DOS 4.x MS-DOS history. IBM Microsoft
MS-DOS 5.x MS-DOS history. IBM Microsoft
MS-DOS 6.x MS-DOS history. IBM Microsoft
NEXTSTEP Apple operating system history. Various Apple
OSF/1 Unix and Linux history. Various OSF
QNX Unix and Linux history. Various QNX
Red Hat Linux Unix and Linux history. Various Red Hat
SCO Unix and Linux history. Various SCO
Slackware Linux Unix and Linux history. Various Slackware
Sun Solaris Unix and Linux history. Various Sun
SuSE Linux Unix and Linux history. Various SuSE
System 1 Apple operating system history. Apple Macintosh Apple
System 2 Apple operating system history. Apple Macintosh Apple
System 3 Apple operating system history. Apple Macintosh Apple
System 4 Apple operating system history. Apple Macintosh Apple
System 6 Apple operating system history. Apple Macintosh Apple
System 7 Apple operating system history. Apple Macintosh Apple
System V Unix and Linux history. Various System V
Tru64 Unix Unix and Linux history. Various Digital
Turbolinux Unix and Linux history. Various Turbolinux
Ultrix Unix and Linux history. Various Ultrix
Unisys Unix and Linux history. Various Unisys
Unix Unix and Linux history. Various Bell labs
UnixWare Unix and Linux history. Various UnixWare
VectorLinux Unix and Linux history. Various VectorLinux
Windows 2000 Microsoft Windows history. IBM Microsoft
Windows 2003 Microsoft Windows history. IBM Microsoft
Windows 3.X Microsoft Windows history. IBM Microsoft
Windows 7 Microsoft Windows history. IBM Microsoft
Windows 95 Microsoft Windows history. IBM Microsoft
Windows 98 Microsoft Windows history. IBM Microsoft
Windows CE Microsoft Windows history. PDA Microsoft
Windows ME Microsoft Windows history. IBM Microsoft
Windows NT Microsoft Windows history. IBM Microsoft
Windows Vista Microsoft Windows history. IBM Microsoft
Windows XP Microsoft Windows history. IBM Microsoft
Xenix Unix and Linux history. Various Microsoft


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